Giordano Bruno Monument Campo de Fiori Rome Italy

The statue of Giordano Bruno in Campo de’ Fiori Square in Rome – Italy

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Giordano Bruno

The monument dedicated to the philosopher Giordano Bruno is the symbol of the famous Roman square Campo de’ Fiori. The square has beautiful architecture, a crowded market, restaurants and tourist bars. In the square, English is a widely spoken language as Italian. On sunny days, Campo de’ Fiori has left its own dark history behind and becomes a pearl of tourist traffic.

Church Santa Barbara dei Librai Rome Italy

Giordano Bruno was one of the most influential philosophers in the sixteenth century. He was born in Nola near Naples, with the name of Filippo. He took the name of Giordano after he became a Dominican friar. In the monastery, he began to doubt Catholic dogmas. In 1576, another friar denounced Bruno for his ideas and Bruno began to wander first in Italy and then in Europe.

via Arenula Rome Italy

In 1592, Giordano Bruno went to the Republic of Venice to the court of the noble Giovanni Francesco Mocenigo. Returning to a Catholic country was dangerous for Bruno. Because the Tribunal of the Holy Inquisition, in particular the Holy Office of Rome, preserved the papal doctrine with a bloody repression. After the Protestant schism of 1517 and the election of Pope Paul IV in 1555, the Catholic Church did not tolerate opinions that contradicted its own doctrine.

Door Building Rione Regola Rome Italy

The Trial

The noble Mocenigo denounced Bruno after the philosopher had expressed his desire to return to Germany. The Papal State asked Venice for the extradition of Giordano Bruno, who was taken to Rome.

Church of Saints Blaise and Charles ai Catinari Rome Italy

During the long process, the Court of the Holy Office scrutinized all the writings of the philosopher. The judges accused Giordano Bruno because of his most brilliant and revolutionary idea, which makes him a precursor of the theory of the Multiverse.

Via Arco del Monte Regola Rome Italy

In fact, the philosopher argued that God and nature were one reality as God is infinite and immanent. In this sense, God participates in human reality. Furthermore, infinity is transferred to nature. Consequently, the universe is infinite and there is a plurality of worlds.

Fountain Piazza Benedetto Cairoli Rome Italy

According to the court of the Holy Office, this theory did not reconcile with the idea of ​​eternity of the individual soul that is central to Catholic doctrine. Thus, the court asked Giordano Bruno to renounce his theories.

Piazza Monte di Pieta Rome Italy
Window Via Arco de Cenci Rome Italy

In some situations, the philosopher seemed to want to abjure but in other situations he confirmed his ideas. Eventually, the court sentenced him to the stake. It is said that upon hearing the sentence, Giordano Bruno told the judges “Perhaps you tremble more in pronouncing this sentence than I in hearing it”.

Giordano Bruno picture Burning Campo de Fiori

On 17 February 1600 the philosopher was burned alive for heresy in Campo de’ Fiori. The sentence intimidated other free thinkers of the time but showed the world the barbarity of the Holy Inquisition.

Market Campo de Fiori Rome Italy

The Monument

In 1870, the Kingdom of Italy conquered Rome and the Pope was relegated to the Vatican. Thus the Italian authorities decided to dedicate a monument to the philosopher in the very place where he was sentenced to death. The Vatican opposed it but the anticlerical current of the Italian government prevailed.

Monument to Benedetto Cairoli Regola Rome Italy

Freemasonry, led by the future mayor of Rome Ernesto Nathan, spent a lot of energy to build the monument. In support of the operation, numerous intellectuals established the “Giordano Bruno National Free Thought Association”, which promoted secularism and free thought.

Giordano Bruno Sora Lella Painting Campo de Fiori Rome Italy

The monument was inaugurated on 9 June 1889. The art work was made in bronze by the artist Ettore Ferrari, deputy of the kingdom and successor of Ernesto Nathan as Grand Master of Freemasonry. Until in 1929, the Lateran pacts wanted by Benito Mussolini reconciled the Italian state with the Vatican. At the same time, Mussolini outlawed Freemasonry.

Via de Giubbonari Communist Party Rome Italy

In the photos of the city trip, you can also see the nearby via de’ Giubbonari, a shopping street, where a historic section of the Communist Party is located, and the gardens of Piazza Benedetto Cairoli.

Garden Piazza Benedetto Cairoli Rome Italy

Written by Enrico, Translated by Hua and Photo from Hua

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